new ship

Status of ocean-going fishing vessels


Time:

2023-12-13

At present, the number of units engaged in the design and construction of ocean-going fishing vessels in China is limited, the number of self-designed and built ocean-going fishing vessels is small, the technical reserve is insufficient, and the overall construction level is backward. China's ocean-going fishing vessels have slow speed, high energy consumption and 40%-50% fuel cost, which is about 15% higher than that of ocean-going fishing vessels with the same power in advanced countries. Although China is a major shipbuilding country in the world, there are few high value-added fishing vessels built, and the advanced design and construction technology of the shipbuilding industry has not benefited ocean-going fishing vessels. Therefore, it has become a top priority to improve the equipment level of China's ocean-going fishing vessels.

At present, the number of units engaged in the design and construction of ocean-going fishing vessels in China is limited, the number of self-designed and built ocean-going fishing vessels is small, the technical reserve is insufficient, and the overall construction level is backward. China's ocean-going fishing vessels have slow speed, high energy consumption and 40%-50% fuel cost, which is about 15% higher than that of ocean-going fishing vessels with the same power in advanced countries. Although China is a major shipbuilding country in the world, there are few high value-added fishing vessels built, and the advanced design and construction technology of the shipbuilding industry has not benefited ocean-going fishing vessels. Therefore, it has become a top priority to improve the equipment level of China's ocean-going fishing vessels.
In order to make rational use of offshore fishery resources, developed countries have established a scientific fishery management system, attach great importance to the selective study of fishing gear, and send fishery survey vessels every year to investigate new fishing grounds and new resources in various sea areas of the world, so as to provide new operational fishing grounds for their marine fishing fleets. Japan, the United Kingdom and other countries with developed marine fishing industry, in order to innovate the existing fishing gear fishing method, a large number of basic research on various fishing gear fishing methods, so that its structure is becoming more and more reasonable, and the net yield is increased.
At present, the United States and Japan have advanced satellite navigation and fish detection systems in the world. They can detect and track fish stocks from the sky, seabed, and coastal areas, and can know the movement of fish stocks at any time to ensure the fishing success rate of fishing vessels.
The characteristics of pelagic fishery are far away from the production base and strong independence, which inevitably requires light hull, fast speed, automatic operation of nets, automatic processing and serialization. With the continuous improvement of industrial modernization, the level of technical equipment such as horsepower, tonnage, speed, cabin capacity, fishing machinery automation, comprehensive production capacity, self-maintenance capacity, and processing capacity of fishing vessels has continued to improve. The advanced level of foreign fishing vessel equipment is much higher than that of developing countries. For example, the flagship ALBACORA purse seine of Spain's tuna fleet is the largest tuna purse seine ship in the world. The captain is 105 meters, the model width is more than 10 meters, the total tonnage is 2640 tons, the fresh fish refrigeration capacity is 3000 tons, and the quick freezing capacity is 2350 cubic meters. Its refrigeration equipment includes 6 73.5K compressors and 26 cold seawater storage rooms, which can freeze 140 tons per day. The machine is not only advanced engine main engine, high speed, auxiliary equipment is also quite advanced, winch, lifting machine, power pulley, crane is also very advanced. In addition, the cab is equipped with three radars, satellite navigation, rotary compass, automatic navigation and odometer, as well as single sideband and VHF communication equipment. The ship is also equipped with a Hughes 500E helicopter used to detect fish schools, flying at a maximum altitude of 2900 meters and a speed of 150 kilometers per hour.
In the mid-1990s, Iceland developed a shrimp catching system with two nets for one boat. The net used in this shrimp catching system is two ANGMAGSALIK trawls with a total length of 102 meters. The opening distance of the net mouth of the two nets is 25 meters respectively, and the height of the net mouth is 11 meters respectively. The fishing results showed that despite a 30 per cent increase in fuel when fishing vessels were operating, production increased by 70 per cent, reaching 210 tons in 19 days of fishing.
According to statistics, the value of a 8000-ton large-scale ocean-going trawler exceeds the 180000-ton Cape of Good Hope bulk carrier, while the value of an advanced Antarctic krill fishing ship is as high as 0.17 billion US dollars, more than 10,000 containers, which is a high-tech and high-value-added ship.
At present, the vast majority of fishing boats in China are relatively old, and their fishing equipment and fishing navigation equipment are relatively backward. Although the fishing equipment for trawling has adopted hydraulic transmission technology, the technical level of control technology and automation is still relatively backward, and the product specifications are relatively small.
The fishing equipment for purse seine operations in China is mainly: stranding machine, power pulley, side roller, tail lifting machine and net management machine. Although another purse seine lifting machine called multi-roller has been successfully developed, it has not been popularized due to the problem of operating habits: generally, the fishing equipment of domestic purse seine fishing vessels is partially mechanized, and many operating procedures are completed by manpower, with a relatively low level of automation.
The use of single-vessel mid-level trawling is the main form of mid-level trawling in the world. Its operating technique is similar to that of a single bottom trawl. The position of the water layer of the net is also maintained mainly by adjusting the length of the drag and the speed. At present, the fishing target is mainly herring, which is also used to catch Antarctic krill.
my country's tuna ultra-low temperature longline fishing vessels are basically old ships that have been eliminated by companies from Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.
(1) Ultra-low temperature longline vessel
Fish can be picked up and supplied by sea, and each voyage can last for 6 to 12 months. Gross tonnage 400~750, captain 45~60 meters. The fishing targets are adult fish such as large, bluefin and yellowfin, frozen and refrigerated at -50 ℃ to -55 ℃, and the target is the raw tuna market.
(2) Cold sea water and normal temperature tuna longline boat
Mainly rely on the base supply, the ship is small, the captain is 25~35 meters, the sea self-sustaining force 15~30 days. The main fishing objects are long fins, and a small amount of yellow fins are caught by means of cold sea water refrigeration and freezing. About half of the products are long fins, sold to canneries; raw food varieties, first-class products sold to Japan, second-class products sold to the United States. This kind of boat according to the hull material is divided into steel cold seawater tuna boat and glass steel cold seawater tuna boat. Due to the rising price of international crude oil, the development of economical, energy-saving and reliable FRP ship type once became a hot issue in scientific research. However, due to the electrical corrosion resistance of mechanical equipment materials, it is difficult to pass the customs and the maintenance cost is too high. Most of the shipowners have converted to steel hull ships.
(3) chilled tuna longline fishing boat
China's chilled tuna fishing boats began to operate in the South Pacific Sea as early as 1988. Both cold storage and fishing equipment are relatively backward, and the ship type is also relatively small. Relying on the base for replenishment, they are self-sustaining at sea for 7-10 days. They mainly catch adult fish such as large-mesh or yellowfin, keep them fresh by chilled and air to the raw food market. These vessels are generally backward in terms of equipment configuration such as fishing, fishing assistance and communication, and there are still many defects in their suitability for fishing, cold storage conditions and tank capacity, hygiene and safety of processing operations, and living conditions of crew.
(4) Tuna purse seine vessel
This is the most technical content of the existing fishing boats, the current domestic fishing boats are all imported foreign second-hand ship type, according to the degree of new and old, different equipment, the price of a single ship in 800~10 million US dollars. Up to now, the advanced tuna purse seine ship introduced by China is a new type of ship purchased by China Water Corporation in 2008 and built by Taiwan in 2001 ".
At present, there are three main types of squid fishing boats in China.
1. The squid fishing vessel transformed from a 600-horsepower trawler has congenital defects in the use of main and auxiliary engines of the main diesel-powered equipment due to the different methods of trawling and squid fishing. In order to solve this problem, most fishing boats are equipped with high-power auxiliary machines, but the problems of refrigeration capacity and small capacity are difficult to solve. Because squid fishing operations are far away from the mainland, the requirements for cold storage capacity are relatively high, so in the production season, cold storage warehouses are often forced to stop production and wait for reprinting.
2. The introduction of second-hand professional jigging boat, mainly from Japan and other countries to buy imports.
3. Domestic imitation ship type, configuration is similar to imported ship type, some slightly modified, such as water group joint stock company in the ship to install cooking processing equipment. The captain is generally 60 to 70 meters. The main engine has a power of about 1800 horsepower, a maximum speed of 14 knots, and a refrigeration capacity of 500 to 1000 tons. Judging from the production situation in recent years, the production efficiency of more than 70 meters of professional squid jigging vessels is much better than that of other modified vessels.
The gap between China's fishing vessels and advanced countries
1, the ocean fishing vessel equipment backward, low level of automation, less capital investment
Although some more advanced tuna purse seine vessels, ultra-low temperature longline fishing vessels and large trawling fishing vessels have been introduced in recent years, they are all old vessels used by foreign countries for more than 10 years. The performance and quality of some of China's imitated fishing vessels (including steel, pipelines, electrical instruments, paints, etc.) have not yet been completely passed, Fishing technology and nets, fishing equipment, communication and positioning monitoring equipment are also introduced. Even the large trawl processing vessel, which is now in use for about 20 years, is more reliable in quality than the new fishing vessels of the same kind built by China itself. China's own investment in research and development and renewal of old ships is also far behind the pace of advanced countries.
After years of operation, China's ocean-going fleet and equipment have been aging seriously, which not only increases the maintenance cost, but also brings the hidden danger of safety production.
At present, the equipment of foreign ocean-going fishing vessels is basically automatic control, which not only improves the work efficiency, but also ensures the quality of the products. However, most of our country mainly uses manual operation. Due to the large number of working machines, manual operation not only increases the number of crew, but also increases the risk of operation. Foreign trawl processing ships of 7000 tons to 8000 tons only need 15-16 crew members, while China needs more than 100.
2, the use of new technologies, new materials, new technology is very little
For more advanced Antarctic shrimp fishing boats, canine fishing boats, European large and special fishing boats, and mother-child fishing and processing boat groups, many high-tech equipment have been used in steel, stability design, ice-breaking capacity, surimi deep processing equipment, and helicopter rescue. Due to the technical blockade of developed countries, we know little about it.
For example, in Japan's tuna longline fishery, ships with a total tonnage of less than 20 tons are generally used along the coast; while offshore and ocean-going tuna longline, which have a great advantage in production, are 50-100 tons and 200-500 tons respectively. The main fishing boats are engaged in mother-ship operations of hundreds of tons or more, and the largest is more than 3000 tons. This longline boat can carry up to 400 baskets of fishing tackle.
Recently, the International Fisheries Conservation Organization has stipulated that driftwood and electric buoys are strictly prohibited, which indicates that in the future, tuna purse seine can only be mainly used to hunt floating fish. Therefore, the use of helicopter fish and powerful seabird radar, in order to ensure the speed of fishing boats to use high-power power models, large capacity of the ship has become an inevitable trend.
The development of my country's offshore fishery equipment must be improved from quantity to quality, otherwise it will be difficult to fundamentally change the backward situation, and it is also extremely disproportionate to my country's comprehensive economic strength.
3, the lack of management led to low energy efficiency of ocean fishing vessels
The implementation of energy-saving ship manufacturing, there must be "laws to follow". Although international organizations, industry organizations, regional alliances and other countries have put forward relevant laws and regulations on energy-saving manufacturing and green ship manufacturing, China has also put forward some policy requirements and regulations on energy-saving manufacturing, but these laws and requirements cover a wide range and target a wide range. Taking them as the basis for implementing green ship manufacturing in China is not realistic, and the other is that the operability is not strong, on the whole, the green manufacturing of ships in China is still in a state of "unable to rely on.
The problem of weakening industry management exists in many industries. However, due to the long industrial chain and complex production process of the shipbuilding industry, the weakening of industry management has a greater impact on the development of the shipbuilding industry than other industries. For a long time, hundreds of ship building and repairing enterprises in different places and departments have not established a sound and effective industry management system. Without the overall planning and macro-control of the country, enterprises lack guiding plans, and the development of the shipbuilding industry is quite blind and spontaneous.
The domestic shipbuilding industry uses ordinary steel plates, which have a large amount of steel cutting and a long welding length, so the production efficiency is low and the production cost is high. Because the steel computer nesting system is not used, the domestic shipbuilding industry has poor design accuracy, large steel processing allowance, many repetitions, high cost and many waste materials. Domestic shipyards generally use ordinary welding technology, automatic welding, semi-automatic welding utilization rate is low, only 30% to 40%,
At present, the utilization rate of steel in China's shipbuilding industry is 87%, while the utilization rate of steel in Japan and South Korea has reached 92% to 95%, and the gap is very obvious. If the utilization rate of steel is increased by 1 percentage point, 20000 tons of steel can be saved and the cost can be saved by nearly 0.1 billion yuan.